Conservation In Situ: Investigative conservation-restoration works on the wooden inventory in the chapel of St. Mihalj in Samobor, Croatia

Authors: Martina Lochert* and Darija Tripalo**
Mentors: Associate Professor Zvjezdana Jembrih, MA; Assistant Professor Danko Šourek, PhD

*Academy of Fine Arts, Zagreb (Croatia)
Study programme: Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art
Specialization: Sculpture (5th year of study)

**Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Zagreb (Croatia)
Study programme: History of Art

Abstract

Lochert TripaloThe presentation describes the investigative conservation and restoration works carried out on the main altar, two side altars and a choir stall in the chapel of St. Mihalj in Samobor. The work was carried out in situ, from the 15h to the 19th of September, 2014. Investigative conservation and restoration works are an important segment of any conservation and restoration project, and are among the first steps that are to be taken when a new project is started. 
The theoretical part of the research was carried out by students of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, under the mentorship of professor Danko Šourek, and the investigative conservation and restoration works in situ were carried out by students of the Academy of Fine Arts in Zagreb, Department of Conservation and Restoration, under the mentorship of professor Zvjezdana Jembrih.
The investigative works included stratigraphic tests of the main altar of St. Michael (the beginning of the 18th century), two side altars - of St. Cathterine (left; mid-18th century) and Grieving Madonna (right; second half of the 17th century), and a choir stall dating from the beginning of the 18th century (some parts from later period). All three altars bear considerable damage due to high relative humidity and were extensively re-painted during the course of time. After stratigraphic tests carried out on the paint layer of all of the items, a proposal for treatment was drawn up.

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Opširnije:Conservation In Situ: Investigative conservation-restoration works on the wooden inventory in the...

Conservation of Archaeological Waterlogged Wooden Objects Using Trehalose and Freeze Drying

Author: Andrea Madarász
Mentors: Lecturer András Morgós, PhD; Katalin Orosz, PhD (Head of the paper conservation specialization); Márta Kissné Bendefy (Head of the leather conservation specialization)

Hungarian University of Fine Arts, Budapest (Hungary)
Study programme: Conservation
Specialization: Wood and furniture (5th year of study)

Abstract

Madarasz AThe conservation of archaeological waterlogged wood is a challenge for conservators all over the world. The most critical interventions are impregnation and drying of the objects. The conservation procedures are often expensive and can extend over long periods of time. Therefore, many are still looking for cheaper and less time consuming methods.
The degree work, carried out at the Hungarian University of Fine Arts, summarized here is a contribution to the efforts to achieve the aforesaid targets. During the conservation/impregnation of three waterlogged wooden objects, a kind of sugar called trehalose was employed. Trehalose is a disaccharide, commonly used as a cryoprotectant and preventing the denaturation of microorganisms in frozen condition. The main advantages of this material when used for conservation purposes are its small molecule size, fast crystallization, high solubility in water, low hygroscopicity and fast drying even in open air. In order to make drying faster and more cost-effective, freeze drying was used. This method is well known in conservation practice, but has not yet been used for waterlogged wooden objects impregnated with trehalose. Therefore, a preliminary investigation had to be undertaken. The presentation gives a short insight into conservation with trehalose, followed by freeze drying.

Opširnije:Conservation of Archaeological Waterlogged Wooden Objects Using Trehalose and Freeze Drying

Explorers of The Lost Treasures of my Homeland: Conservation-restoration educational workshop for the youngest

Authors: Josipa Marić, Ivana Vukadin
Mentor: Senior Lecturer Joška-Tea Katunarić Kirjakov

Arts Academy, Split (Croatia)
Study programme: Integrated undergraduate and graduate course of study in conservation-restoration
Specialization: Archaeological heritage (4th year of study)

Abstract

Maric VukadinIn June 2014 the authors participated in the workshop Explorers of The Lost Treasures of my Homeland, which was a part of the Ministry of Culture’s program Backpack (Full) of Culture. The project goal was to acquaint children, at the youngest age, with objects of cultural heritage and the basic methods of archaeological excavation, conservation-restoration treatments and the concept of live museum, in which children would participate as both curators and protagonists.
The workshop was devised by Joška-Tea Katunarić Kirjakov, senior lecturer at the Arts Academy in Split, and held in the local elementary school Dubrava. Three third-year conservation-restoration students and two third-year visual culture and visual art students participated. Students got the opportunity to get familiar with the educative part of the popularization of cultural heritage, while the children got acquainted with the work of archaeologists and conservators, and learned about the ancient periods of the local history. 
Children "excavated ancient remains", and thereafter identified, cleaned and reassembled them, recording them with drawings. They also made bows and arrows that were like the ones the emperor Diocletian used while hunting in the woods of Dubrava. Professor Katunarić Kirjakov introduced them to the way of life of the ancient residents of Dubrava.

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Opširnije:Explorers of The Lost Treasures of my Homeland: Conservation-restoration educational workshop for...

Conservation, Restoration, Reconstruction and Presentation of Fragments of Roman Wall Paintings From the Archaeological Site Mediana, Niš

Authors: Vladimir Pajić, MA, Marina Tekić, MA, Miša Jovanović, MA, and Tijana Lekić, MA
Pajic et alMentors: Professor Radomir Samardzic, MSc

Faculty of Applied Arts, Belgrade (Serbia)
Study programme: Conservation and Restoration
Specialization: Wall paintings and mosaics (1st year of Master's programme)

Abstract

The project of conservation, restoration, reconstruction and display  of fragments of wall paintings from  the Roman period, found at the site of Mediana (Niš), was realized through team work of four students of the Master’s program  at the Faculty of Applied Arts, Belgrade, the National Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments and the Faculty of Physical Chemistry. Over a relatively short period of time several thousand wall painting fragments, which were close to total degradation, were conserved, restored and put together. Six reconstructed  items were returned to the  site. Prior to any conservation work being carried out, a series of technical  analyses were conducted, in  order to gain insight into the Roman painting techniques. The complete pigment palette of the Roman painters in Maesia and Dacia was thus reconstructed, based on the available sources and the results of the analysis carried out within the framework of the  project. The micro-Raman and XRF spectroscopy of ten samples of the colored layer proved the representative character of the villa with a peristyle to which the paintings belonged, supporting the  earlier scientific research according which its builder was Constantine the Great.

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NOTICE TO AUTHORS: The text has been proofread by Katarina Hraste, MSc, member of the Organizing Committee of the 12th International Conference of the Conservation-Restoration Studies.

Opširnije:Conservation, Restoration, Reconstruction and Presentation of Fragments of Roman Wall Paintings...

From Munich to Zagreb: Research and conservation of the painting "The Satyr and the Peasant" by Miroslav Kraljević

Author: Mirna Međeral
Mentor: Assoc. Professor Tamara Ukrainčik

Academy of Fine Arts, Zagreb (Croatia)
Study programme: Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art
Specialization: Panel Painting (5th year of study)

Abstract

Medjeral MThe presentation deals with a painting that Miroslav Kraljević, Croatian Modern painter, executed at Old Pinakothek in 1910, during his education in Munich. He copied a 17th century piece by Jacob Jordaens, The Satyr and the Peasant, which he subsequently sent to his homeland, to be sold there. More than a hundred years later, the painting arrived in the Department of Conservation of Works of Art – its darkened surface in desperate want of good old scrub. The meticulous research that followed unravelled interesting details and offered answers to most of the raised questions...
How and why was this stunning copy created? Who were the painting’s previous owners and how it ended up in the smoky room at the Academy? How to approach the problem of darkened varnish: by (effectively) removing it, or by (ethically) preserving it? The presentation offers an insight into the painting’s past and how it affected its present condition, and the decisions that had to be made during its conservation treatments.

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Opširnije:From Munich to Zagreb: Research and conservation of the painting "The Satyr and the Peasant" by...

Resistance of Paraloid B-72 to Temperature and UV Radiation

Author: Nađa Šperac
Mentors: Professor Branko Matulić, PhD; Lecturer Nikola Radošević; Assistant Professor Ivica Ljubenkov, PhD

Arts Academy, Split (Croatia)
Study programme: Integrated undergraduate and graduate course of study in conservation-restoration
Specialization: Wall paintings and mosaics (5th year of study)

Extended abstract [ORAL PRESENTATION IN CROATIAN]

Sperac NParaloid B-72 is the thermoplastic, non-yellowing, synthetic resin. Its chemical composition is copolymer methacrylate and ethyl methacrylate. Due to its chemical stability, reversibility, and good aging characteristics, Paralod B-72 has found wide use in conservation as a consolidant, adhesive, insulator and varnish. It is compatible with almost every material.
A previous research has proved Paraloid B-72’s smaller or greater vulnerability to microorganism attack, depending on the solvent used. Taking into consideration this and many other researches, it was decided to investigate Paraloid B-72's resistance to high temperatures and UV radiation.
The research will use the analytical method of thermogravimetry, which is normally employed in the characterization and identification of materials, determination of organic contents in materials as well as in – for us here particularly interesting – the investigation of material degradation mechanisms.
There will be four different samples, each consisting of a layer of lime plaster, a pigment layer, and a layer of Paraloid B-72 used in the following concentrations:

  1. 3 % – the concentration which is generally used for consolidation purposes/ as a consolidant,
  2. 7 % – according to foreign articles, the most widely used concentration when it is employed as insulator, varnish, etc.
  3. 10 %
  4. 50 % – the common concentration of Paraloid B-72, when used as an adhesive.

It was agreed that it would be interesting to check its resistance to temperature and reversibility in these concentrations. Therefore, it is planned to expose the samples continuously for three months to the following temperature values:

  1. 35 °C – the temperature chosen according to the Tg, which is between 30 and 40 C,
  2. 45 °C – the temperature, which is slightly above the Tg values of Paraloid B-72,
  3. 50 °C – the maximum temperature that a facade can reach in the summer period,
  4. 80 °C – this extreme temperature was chosen as the ultimate endurance test.

The tests of Paraloid B-72 susceptibility to UV radiation require simulation of weather conditions during the summer months when the UV index is high. Two groups of samples will be prepared for this research. The first one will consist of a layer of lime mortar, a layer of blue pigment, and a layer of Paraloid B-72. The second one will contain all of the above, except that the blue pigment will be replaced with green pigment. Both samples will be prepared using a secco technique. They will be continuously exposed to UV radiation for the specific period of time, which will reveal the endurance of Paraloid B-72 and its ability to protect extremely sensitive green and blue pigments.
This research results will be relevant for exterior wall paintings, stucco and sgraffito decorations, all of which get exposed to high temperature and UV radiation in Mediterranean summer weather conditions.

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Opširnije:Resistance of Paraloid B-72 to Temperature and UV Radiation

Similarities and Differences in the History, Techniques and Technologies Used in two Gothic Panel Paintings From the Historic Region of Lesser Poland

Authors: Filip Pelon and Bartosz Zarębski, MA [in music]
Mentors: Professor Marta Lempart-Geratowska; Assistant Professor Jarosław Adamowicz

Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts, Cracow (Poland)
Study programme: Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art
Specialization: Paintings (6th year of study)

Pelon ZarebskiSummary

The authors compare the history, techniques and technologies employed in the making of two Gothic panel paintings from the Lesser Poland. Despite differences in  painting layers, the supports reveal similarities in the execution of the woodwork. The authors put forward the hypothesis  that the panels were made in the same carpenter’s shop, which has left mark on them. They also stress the fact that both  paintings have been worshiped for ages, which in both cases has resulted in many repairs and over-paintings,  suggesting that there could be an interesting link between the Gothic panel paintings  from the Lesser Poland and those from some other,  lesser known, European centers, in which the existence of the same type of panel paintings has been documented.

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Opširnije:Similarities and Differences in the History, Techniques and Technologies Used in two Gothic Panel...

A Creative Way to Practical Knowledge: Optimal ratio determination of binders, and pigments in oil paint production

Authors: Barbara Dragan and Petra Zaviršek
Mentors: Associate Professor Tamara Trček Pečak, MA; Assistant Professor Irena Kralj Cigić, PhD; Assistant Professor Drago Kočar, PhD; Aleksander Mikuš; Assistant Gregor Kokalj, MA; Assistant Nina Dorič Majdič, MA

Academy of Fine Arts and Design, Ljubljana (Slovenia)
Study programme: Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art
Specialization: – (3rd [final] year of the Bachelor's programme)

Abstract

Dragan ZavirsekOwing to its unique characteristics, oil paint still remains an indispensable paint material. There are plenty of ready-made products on the market and they vary both in price and quality. Painters usually use more affordable oil paints that are consequently of lower quality. This results in a faster deterioration of paintings and a more difficult conservation-restoration work.
These were the main reasons behind our wish to create oil paints of high quality that would still remain accessible to a wide range of users.
The last year’s interdisciplinary project connected chemistry, fine arts and conservation-restoration. Conservation-restoration students were making oil colours searching for the optimal ratio between binding medium and pigments, and prepared samples that were analysed by chemistry students.They measured opacity, viscosity and elasticity of paint and observed its behaviour in an accelerated aging chamber. The purpose of the project was to determine the optimal ratio between basic components of the selected oil paints from a user-applicative perspective, supported by the standard objective chemical-physical methods. This project was just the first step towards our goal. We will be continuing our mission during this year’s project.

Projekt delno financira Evropska unija iz Evropskega socialnega sklada. Projekt se izvaja v okviru Operativnega programa razvoja človeških virov za obdobje 2007-2013, 1. razvojne prioritete “Spodbujanje podjetništva in prilagodljivosti” ter prednostne usmeritve 1.3.: “Štipendijske sheme”, v okviru potrjene operacije “Po kreativni poti do praktičnega znanja”.

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Dragan Zavirsek LOGOTIPI

Opširnije:A Creative Way to Practical Knowledge: Optimal ratio determination of binders, and pigments in...

Disassembling, Restoration and Reassembling of a Stone Altar

Authors: Dominik Rajčević and Mateja Novaković
Mentor: Assistant Professor Siniša Bizjak

Arts Academy, Split (Croatia)
Study programme: Integrated undergraduate and graduate course of study in conservation-restoration
Specialization: Stone (4th year of study)

Extended abstract [ORAL PRESENTATION IN CROATIAN]

Rajcevic NovakovicThe altar of Our Lady of Good Health is one of the nine restored altars in the church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Rogoznica, and the only one that was disassembled, restored and reassembled. The works were carried out between October and December 2014.
The altar stands against the west wall, in the right church aisle. The exact time of its making is impossible to determine. Namely, judging by its stylistic features the year 1893 incised in the mensa could not be the year in which it was constructed. It is much more likely that it was carved earlier and moved to its present location in 1893.
The altar is made of Carrara Bianco marble and limestone, and embellished with marble inlays. The altarpiece contains the image of Our Lady Good Health, with a silver repousse cover. The altar was soiled, stained, and with deteriorated and displaced elements, missing inlays and holes drilled into the cornice of the mensa. Although the missing parts of inlays and the soiled upper part of the altar, caused by the burning of candles in the church, made a particularly unpleasant visual impression, the corroded iron dowels and clamps that stained the altar and were used as bonds between its stone elements, were causing much greater harm, since the breaking and bursting of stone due to volume expansion linked to their corrosion, threatened the static stability of the whole structure.
The only way to solve this serious problem was to disassemble the altar, replace the corroded iron elements, and reassemble it. When the altar was disassembled, it was found out that in its assembling lime and, in some places, even Portland cement were used. The iron dowels were used to connect different stone elements, while the majority of clamps were used to fix the altar element to the wall. The iron elements were kept in position using cast lead.
The logical first step was to remove the corroded dowels and clamps. The work began at the bottom of the altar, proceeding upwards to the top. The stone elements that were displaced from their original position, were the most easy to remove. The corroded iron elements were removed using traditional stonemasonry tools and electric drills, and replaced with new stainless steel dowels and clamps, over which new lead was poured. The broken stone fragments were glued together using epoxy glue, and the elements that were put back in their place were glued with white cement-based flexible adhesive. Now that the altar was completely stable, and back in one piece, the cleaning of the marble surface could begin.
The altar’s marble surface was cleaned with water vapour using a hand steamer. In the places in which this method did not give satisfactory results, cellulose pulp and Japan paper were applied. The pulp and paper were soaked with a 25% solution of ammonium carbonate in distilled water. The results were very satisfactory. In the end, smaller reconstructions, retouches, and the final conservation operations were carried out.

Opširnije:Disassembling, Restoration and Reassembling of a Stone Altar

Student Participation in Gabrijel Stupica Up Close: The Technology of Making and Preserving Works of Art Project

Authors: Marjeta Klemenčič and Petra Juvan
Mentor: Associate Professor Tamara Trček Pečak, MA

Academy of Fine Arts and Design, Ljubljana (Slovenia)
Study programme: Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art
Specialization: Paintings and polychrome sculptures (2nd [final] year of the Master's programme)

Abstract

Klemencic JuvanGabrijel Stupica Up Close: The Technology of Making and Preserving Works of Art project (2014) was the result of collaboration among the Restoration-Conservation Department of the Moderna galerija, the Restoration Department of the Academy of Fine Arts and Design, University of Ljubljana (UL ALUO), the Restoration Centre of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, and the National Gallery of Slovenia.
The project involved scientific research, examination, documentation, and restoration of more than 150 of Stupica's works. In an attempt to reconstruct some of the technical solutions the artist resorted to, the undergraduate and graduate students of ALUO UL, under the supervision of the project’s authors Nada Madžarac (Moderna galerija) and assoc. professor Tamara Trček Pečak (UL ALUO) produced a series of technological studies of a number of details from Stupica's paintings, which gave insight into his thinking and creative work.
The exhibition, which included a video presentation, was open to the public at the Modern Gallery in Ljubljana, from April to August 2014. During this period the students involved in the work on technological studies were engaged as guides through the exhibition, explaining to the visitors the technology of Stupica’s work, the conclusions of the investigation, and the ways of preserving his paintings.

Opširnije:Student Participation in Gabrijel Stupica Up Close: The Technology of Making and Preserving Works...

The Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Historic Pigments

Author: Valentina Bakša
Mentors: Associate Professor Zvjezdana Jembrih, MA; Associate Professor Vladan Desnica, PhD

Academy of Fine Arts, Zagreb (Croatia)
Study programme: Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art
Specialization: Sculpture (5th year of study)

Baksa VAbstract

It is common to subject wooden objects to some sort of desinsection, before treating and storing them in the depot, in order to prevent the activities of microorganisms and other pests and contamination of the nearby wooden objects. The most common desinsection method used in recent times is radiation with intensive gamma rays, e.g. using radioactive cobalt 60. The dose can vary depending on the type of pest. Thus, a sculpture infected by microorganisms requires a higher amount of gamma radiation than a sculpture infested by worms.
In order to examine the possible impact of radiation on discoloration of sculptures, we submitted different paint layer samples to various amounts of gamma radiation and compared them after exposure. The investigation focused on the pigment types identified on the sculpture of the Blessed Virgin Mary from Hromec chapel (which had also been exposed to gamma radiation), but the investigation also included other frequently used pigments. Four types of priming were applied to a cardboard and overpainted with pigments mixed with different binders. To ensure an objective characterisation of colour and its visual alternations, the fibre optics reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) was used.

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Opširnije:The Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Historic Pigments

Conservation and Restoration of the Poster "25 Juin 1916 journee Serbe" by Steinlen

Author: Jelena Simić
Mentors: Professor Svetislav Nikolić, MSc; Assistant Professor Tijana Lazić, MSc

Faculty of Applied Arts, Belgrade (Serbia)
Study programme: Conservation and Restoration
Specialization: Paintings and works of art on paper (5th year of study)

Simic JAbstract

The presentation is about the conservation and restoration of a poster from 1916; a lithograph by the famous French artist Steinlen that was brought from Corfu (Greece) in a roll. The dimensions of the poster are 114.5 cm × 77.5 cm.
The presentation covers the entire procedure of conservation and restoration, from the beginning to the end. That includes: thorough inspection of the object, investigative analysis, conservation-restoration treatment and the final presentation of the poster after the treatment. Practical work involved: mechanical removal of the support that the poster came with (it was glued to some kind of wallpaper), capillary washing of the poster (this technique of washing was used because the paper was very friable), drying, flattening and lining of the poster with Japanese paper, filling in of the missing parts and, finally, retouching.
At the end of the presentation, preventive conservation measures for the poster are proposed.

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NOTICE TO AUTHOR: The text has been proofread by Katarina Hraste, MSc, member of the Organizing Committee of the 12th International Conference of the Conservation-Restoration Studies.

Opširnije:Conservation and Restoration of the Poster "25 Juin 1916 journee Serbe" by Steinlen

Removing Soot From the Surface of oil Paintings

Author: Joanna Sitnik
M
entor: Assistant Professor Alexander Hola, PhD

Academy of Fine Arts, Cracow (Poland)
Study programme: Conservation of Paintings
Specialization: Paintings (5th year of study)

Abstract

Sitnik JThe presentation is about the research carried out by the author at the University of Antwerp during her Erasmus exchange period. The project included a research into the nature of soot, how it affects the paint layer and how it can be removed from the surface of oil paintings using solvents.
Fire damages to paintings are a very complicated and complex problem. Fire is always the cause of many interconnected damages, which complicate conservation. At extremely high temperatures, the paint layer undergoes a temperature shock, which results in significant ageing and worsening of the paint layer’s condition. The author tried to answer the following questions: Is it possible to remove soot from the surface using traditional conservation methods? Is it possible to restore the original appearance of a painting? The author also tried to find out whether soot could be removed without damage to paint layer.
The nature of the soot was studied by visual observation and by analysing the photos taken through a microscope. Solvent tests were performed on three paintings: two on canvas and one on plywood. The solvents were chosen according to their strength and polarity. The performance of the solvents was checked visually and by taking photos through a microscope.

Opširnije:Removing Soot From the Surface of oil Paintings

Presentation and Storage of the Romanesque Ceiling Painting Fragments From the Church of St. Nikolaus in Matrei

Author: Cäcilia Kegley
Mentors: Professor Wolfgang Baatz; Assistant Lecturer Beate Sipek, dipl. ing., MA; Assistant Lecturer Alexandra Sagmeister, MA,

Academy of Fine Arts, Vienna (Austria)
Study programme: Conservation and Restoration
Specialization: Wall paintings and architectural surfaces (5th year of study)

Abstract

Kegley CThe paper focuses on how the newly recovered fragments of old wall paintings were dealt with in Austria in the 20th century. Several different examples have been chosen to illustrate  as many  solutions to conservation, reassembling, storage, and  display of such fragments. The acquired information was used to determine the best approach to the display of the former Romanesque ceiling paintings from the church St. Nikolaus in Matrei, East Tyrol. In 1997 archaeologists found  its fragments carefully and reverently buried at a site close to the church. A fire damaging the bell tower in the late 18th century led to the precarious condition of the remaining paintings on the church ceiling. Fortunately, the incident did not destroy them completely, so that a large part of the original, although heavily over-painted scheme,  is still in situ. Since neither of the two schemes is any  longer in function as ceiling paintings, but have a history of their own, the problem now arises as to how to establish a connection between  them ,  i.e. how to bring them together in a unique  presentation. In a simulation of the future display, four fragments from St. Nikolaus were duplicated, each illustrating a different way of showcasing the objects in question.

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Opširnije:Presentation and Storage of the Romanesque Ceiling Painting Fragments From the Church of St....

11. MEĐUNARODNA KONFERENCIJA STUDIJA KONZERVACIJE-RESTAURACIJE, ZAGREB 2014.

Ispod se nalaze sažeci usmenih izlaganja predstavljenih na 11. međunarodnoj konferenciji studija konzervacije-restauracije. Konferencija  je održana 2014. godine u Zagrebu, a program možete pogledati ovdje. Cjeloviti tekstovi izlaganja bit će objavljeni uskoro.

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The splitting treatment on the obverse of the right, smaller wing of the Łącko Triptych from the beggining of the XVI-century

Author: Maria Kisiel
Mentor: Marta Lempart-Geratowska, Associate Professor

Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts in Kraków (Poland)
Study  programme: Conservation and Restoration of Art
Specialization: Conservation-restoration of paintings, 6th study year  

Summary

KISIEL MariaThe aim of my presentation is to show the splitting treatment research, conservation and restoration of a panel paintings which were a part of the Łącko Tryptych(Lesser Poland). The paintings were on the obverse of the right wing. The 16th century underlayer depicting St. Peter and St. Nicolas was covered in 17th century by a baroque painting with the image of St. Rosalia. My conservation programme included the seperation of the two painting layers and transferring the most recent one to a new support. As this intervention was very difficult and risky, the capabilities of the splitting treatment were preceded by very precise research.
In my presentation I want to show the splitting treatment, which consists of:
• facing the upper paint layer
• softening of the baroque layer by temperature and chemical substances
• a step-by-step undercutting using scalpel
• adding expansion putty on the back and lining
• embedding the transferred baroque painting to the new lime support in the shape of the original one
• filling the looses
• cleaning the residue, varnish and dirt of the gothic painting.
Despite the fact that the splitting treatment is a quite controversial method, in my opinion it is worth looking into.

Opširnije:The splitting treatment on the obverse of the right, smaller wing of the Łącko Triptych from the...

Is crust black or white? A study in Croatian conservation – restoration terminology

Author: Helena Ugrina
Mentor: Katarina Hraste, MA

University of Split, Arts Academy in Split (Croatia)
Integrated Undergraduate/Graduate Program in Conservation-Restoration
Specialization: Conservation-restoration of stone, 5th study year

Summary

UGRINA HelenaConservation - restoration is a relatively new discipline, geared towards science. At this point, a precise and thorough research into the restoration-conservation concepts and terms is indispensable, because in this discipline terminological confusion is common among scientists, as well as among practicing conservators and restorers. This also includes the need for the standardization of Croatian conservation - restoration terminology, in order to avoid ambiguities and imprecision which the profession does not tolerate. The further benefit of this standardization would be a higher-quality domestic and international communications within the conservation-restoration community. The presentation gives a short critical review of Croatian terminology designating stone deterioration patterns (harmful surface deposits). The research is based on five exemplary texts published over the last five years, in three different regional centres (Zagreb, Split, Pula), and its results are compared to the definitions of the equivalent terms in ICOMOS –ISCSI Glossary of Stone Deterioration Patterns which promotes international cooperation, so important in this field.

Opširnije:Is crust black or white? A study in Croatian conservation – restoration terminology

Developing Carbon-fibre Reinforced Epoxy Dowels for the Reassembly of a Fragmented Egyptian Coffin Lid

Authors: Ana Maly, Julia Mitterbauer and Marco Rican
Mentor: Wolfgang Baatz, o. Univ. Prof. Mag. Dipl.-Ing., Department Head; Nanke C. Schellmann, Dr.rer.nat. MA (RCA), Senior Tutor & Research Scientist

Academy of Fine Arts, Vienna (Austria)
Study programme: Conservation and Restoration
Specialization: Conservation-restoration of wooden objects, 3rd year of study  

Summary

MALY MITTERBAUER RICANThe 3000-year-old Egyptian anthropoid wooden coffin lid, belonging to the priestess But-haar-chons (3rd Intermediate Period, Dynasty 21/22), is constructed of major wooden boards that are held together by cone-shaped dowels, wooden nails, mortis and tenon joints, as well as loose tenon joints.
Due to serious structural damage, restoration measures were carried out in the mid-20th century. However, those restoration measures were neither executed consistently nor fully completed, thereby resulting in the misalignment of some major wooden boards.
Subsequently, the re-integration of the detached stilt and many loose polychrome fragments became impossible, leaving the entire object in poor condition.
To re-align and re-join the wooden boards into correct position, using only the holes drilled during the previous restoration campaign, novel dowels were developed in order to in order to connect non-aligned holes through a customised form and bear the considerable weight of the coffin lid. Those dowels were formed in situ once the construction elements of the lid were correctly aligned using epoxy resin reinforced with specifically manufactured plaited carbon fibre cord.

Opširnije:Developing Carbon-fibre Reinforced Epoxy Dowels for the Reassembly of a Fragmented Egyptian...

Workshop experiences - materials and methods in wall painting conservation

Authors: Ivan-Vanja Martinović, Mirna Međeral and Ivana Pavleka
Mentor: Neva Pološki, Assistant Professor

University of Zagreb, Academy of Fine Arts (Croatia)
Integrated study programme: Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art
Specialization: Conservation-restoration of painting, 4sth study year

Summary

MARTINOVIC MEDJERAL PAVLEKAThe main focus of this presentation is on materials used in conservation of wall paintings, which were presented on various conservation workshops held during 2013.
The presentation summarizes workshop experiences and highlights the importance of utilization of thus gained knowledge. It is divided into three basic chapters. The first part provides basic information on wall painting conservation materials and their characteristics, used for pre/consolidation, cleaning and desalination of wall paintings. The second part gives a concise overview of materials' presentation on various workshops. The last part of the presentation describes the subsequent application of the discussed conservation materials in the OKIRU wall painting studio. The characteristics of inogranic materials for wall painting conservation were ascertained through practical work and execution of empirical probes.
The assessed inorganic materials were the following: ammonium carbonate, barium hydroxide, EDTA tetrasodic, AB 57, various nanolimes, Nanoestel 2000 and cation exchange resin. The results have been critically evaluated and compared with expected outcomes.

Opširnije:Workshop experiences - materials and methods in wall painting conservation

The restoration of a Persian hand-armour

Author: Rebeka Nagy
Mentor: Márta Kissné Bendefy, Acting Head of Specialization in Leather Conservation; Andrea Várfalvi, Acting Head of Specialization in Textile Conservation

Hungarian University of Fine Arts (Hungary)
Study programme: Conservation of Applied Arts Objects
Specialization: Conservation-restoration of textile and leather, 10th semester  

Summary

NAGY RebekaThe issue of the presentation is the restoration of a Persian hand-armour - bazuband. It’s origin goes back to date of the Quadzsar-period, the 17-18th century.
The work was complicated because the object consisted of many different materials - alum-tawed leather, iron and brass wire-gauze and purple silk lining. The metals were corroded, the iron corrosion stained the whole surface of the white leather and the silk lining was dirty and torn at several parts.
The dismantling of the wire-gauze by removing the sewing threads couldn’t be avoided to ensure the safe cleaning circumstances for the organic materials. It seemed to be necessary to block the iron-ions in the leather because they catalyse its degradation. Calcium-phytate can stop this process but it is soluble in water which is harmful for the alum tawed skin, so this time i-propanol was added to the aqueous solution.
There were some difficulties with the wire-gauze as well. The corrosion had to be removed from the surface of two different metals. Mechanical cleaning followed by soaking in sodium-hexametaphosphate solution proved to be the best method. After cleaning the surface was covered with a protective layer of synthetic resin which had to be dried in a special way because of the chain-link structure.
The textile part of the object couldn’t be cleaned with water because it was not separated from the leather. But the misshaped threads had to be rearranged so the cloth was humidified. After that the textile part of the hand-armour could be conserved by sewing a support fabric underneath. At the end of the work the elements of the object were reassembled.

Opširnije:The restoration of a Persian hand-armour

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